The correct style to use for citing references in the Reference List section is discussed in detail in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Fifth Edition, 2001, or later (APA style). Be careful to follow the punctuation, indentation, and format shown below.
q The Reference List must be double-spaced.
q Note: If using the actual APA Publication Manual, all example references are single-spaced to save space in the Publication Manual.
q The Reference List should be alphabetized according to the first letter of each entry.
q Entries should be formatted using a hanging indent. Entries should begin flush left and the second and all subsequent lines should be indented.
q Italics are preferred over the use of underlining.
q The abbreviation for Page(s), p. or pp., is not used except in references to newspapers.
q Electronic source references must provide the date the information was retrieved, and also the name and/or address of the source.
Format: The author’s last name is listed first. The author’s name is followed by the date of publication, in parentheses, ending with a period. Next include the book title which is in italics. Capitalize only the first word of the title (and the first word of the subtitle, if any) and any proper names. Close with a final period. End with publication information. Identify the city and, if the city is not well known or could be confused with another city, include the state where the publisher is located. Place a colon (:) after the city name. Then identify the name of the publisher, clearly and briefly. Spell out the names of associations and university presses, but omit superfluous terms such as “Publishers,” “Co.,” or “Inc.” If two or more locations are given, give the location listed first or the publisher’s home office. Close with a period.
Book - One author:
Arnheim, R. (2001). Art and visual perception. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Book - Multiple authors:
When a work has between two and six authors, cite all authors. When a work has more than six authors cite the first six authors followed by “et al.” to indicate the remaining authors.
Festinger, L., Riecken, H., & Schachter, S. (2003). When prophecy fails. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
West, S., Sandler, I., Tein, J., Ivy, P., Patterson, H., Roeder, K., et al. (2001). Nerve cells and insect behavior.
Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Book- Corporate author:
Institute of Financial Education. (2001). Managing personal funds. Chicago: Midwestern Publishing.
Book - Edited volume:
Maher, B. A. (Ed.). (2003). Progress in experimental personality research. New York: Academic Press.
Letheridge, S., & Cannon, C.R. (Eds.). (2001). Bilingual education: Teaching English as a second language.
New York: Praeger.
Book - Work in an anthology:
Rubenstein, J. P. (2003). The effect of television violence on small children. In B.F. Kane (Ed.), Television and
Juvenile Psychological Development (pp. 112-134). New York: American Psychological Society.
Articles in journals or magazines with continuous pagination:
Passons, W. (2001). Predictive validities of the ACT, SAT, and high school grades for first semester GPA and
freshman courses. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 27, 1143-1144.
Posner, M.I. (2000, October 29). Seeing the mind. Science, 262, 673-674.
Articles in journals or magazines with non-continuous pagination:
Because pagination begins anew with each issue of the journal, it is necessary to include the issue number in italics followed by the volume number in parentheses, if applicable. Note that there is a comma between the issue number and the page numbers, but no comma between the italicized volume number and the issue number.
Sawyer, J. (2003). Measurement and prediction, clinical and statistical. Psychological Bulletin, 66(3), 178-200.
Mellers, B. A. (2005). Choice and consequences. Psychological Bulletin, 126, 1040-1049.
Daily Newspaper article:
Schwartz, J. (2005, September 17). Urbana firm obstacle to office project. The Champaign-Urbana News-Gazette, pp. A1, A4, A9-11.
Daily Newspaper article (no author):
President Clinton puts 'human face' on health-care plan. (2002, September 6). The New York Times, p. B14.
Articles in weekly periodicals:
Kauffmann, S. (2005, October 18). On films: Class consciousness. The New Republic, p. 30.
Articles in monthly periodicals:
Chandler-Crisp, S. (2003, May). Aerobic writing: A writing practice model. Writing Lab Newspaper, pp. 9-11.
Photosynthesis and plants. (2004). Encyclopedia Americana (Vol. 22, p. 453). New York: Americana
Entry in an Encyclopedia:
Wagner, D.H. (2002). Relativity. In The new encyclopedia Britannica (Vol. 26, pp. 501-508).
Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica.
Encyclopedia article, CD-ROM:
Author/editor (if given). (Date). Title of material accessed. In Source. Retrieved Publication medium, edition or
version (if relevant). Location: Name of Producer.
Example with author
Daniel, R. T. (2003). The history of Western music. In Britannica Online: Macropaedia. Retrieved CD-ROM.
Carlsbad, CA: Compton’s NewMedia, Inc.
Example without author
Genetic engineering. (2001). In Compton’s Interactive encyclopedia , Version 2.0. Retrieved CD-ROM.
Carlsbad, CA: Compton’s NewMedia, Inc.
Films or videotapes:
Weir, P.B. (Producer), & Harrison, B.F. (Director). (2003). Levels of consciousness [Videotape].
(Available from the American Psychological Association, 750 Second Street, Boston, MA 73002-4224).
Interviews – Published:
Archer, N. (2004). [Interview with Helen Burns, author of Sense and Perception]. Journal of Sensory Studies,
21, pp. 211-216.
Unpublished interviews do not need a reference page entry because they are what the Publication Manual of the APA calls “personal communications” and so “do not provide recoverable data.”
Davis, N. (2003, October 11). Personal interview.
Shocked, M. (1992). Over the waterfall. On Arkansas traveler [CD]. New York: PolyGram Music.
Electronic formats can be found at: http://www.apa.org/science/pubs.html
World Wide Web, Home page/Secondary page:
Author/editor (if known). (Revision or copyright date, if available). Title of page. Publication, Page number(s).
Retrieved Date, from Protocol: Site/Path/File
Goizueta, R. C. Annual report to share owners. Coca-Cola Newsletter, 1- 23. Retrieved October 13, 2005,
Periodical – Electronic:
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (2000). Title of article. Title of Periodical, xx, xxxxxx. Retrieved
month day, year, from source.
Journal Article, Electronic:
Author. (Date). Title. Journal Title, volume, paging. Retrieved Date, from URL
Koehn, D. (2001). The ethics of handwriting analysis in pre-employment screening. Journal of Applied
Psychology, 78, 443-449. Retrieved October 9, 2001, from PsycARTICLES database.
Magazine article, Electronic:
Author. (Date). Title. Magazine Title, volume (if given), paging. Retrieved Date, from URL Protocol:
Rosner, H. (2003, March 4). Will e-mail become j-mail? Brandweek 37, 30. Retrieved from ABI/INFORM.
Daily Newspaper article – Electronic:
Author. (Date). Title. Newspaper Title . Retrieved Date, from URL Protocol: Site/Path/File
Markoff, J. (2005, June 5). Voluntary rules proposed to help insure privacy for Internet users. New York Times.
Retrieved November 21, 2006 from http://www.nytimes.com/library/cyber/week/y05dat.html
Newsgroup article, Electronic:
If the author’s name is available list it last name first. If only a screen name is available, use the screen name. Provide the exact date of posting. Follow the date with the subject line of the message. Do not italicize it. Provide any identifier for the message in brackets after the title. Finish the reference with Message posted to followed by the address of the newsgroup. Note that the protocol is news.
Author (if given). (Date). Subject line of message. Message posted to news:// Protocol:Topic.Subtopic(s)
Chalmers, D. (2000, November 11). Seeing with sound [Msg 1]. Message posted to
Personal communication - Electronic:
Communicator (personal communication, Date)
Omar, B. W. (personal communication, June 5, 2005)
These materials will introduce you to APA documentation, step-by-step instructions, Format, Citations, and Reference Lists. However, it is suggested you reference the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Fifth Edition, 2001, or later, whenever possible.