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Format for Parenthetical Citation within the Text of the
Background Research

All references cited within the text must appear in the reference list, and all entries in the reference list must be cited in the text.

DIRECT QUOTATIONS OF SOURCES

Quotations of less than 40 words should be incorporated in the text and enclosed with double quotation marks. Using the "author-date method" of citation, the quotation is followed with a reference to the author, the publication year, and the page number. These elements must be enclosed in parentheses, together or separately. A complete reference must appear in the reference list at the end of your paper.

He stated, "The 'placebo effect,'...disappeared when behaviors were studied in this manner" (Smith, 2001 , p.276), but he did not clarify which behaviors were studied.

Smith (2001) found that "the 'placebo effect,' which had been verified in previous studies, disappeared when [his own and others'] behaviors were studied in this manner" (p. 276).

If quoting from an Internet source or CD-ROM, use the same format as for other quotations, but use [Online] or [CD-ROM] in place of a page number reference .

He stated, "The 'placebo effect,'...disappeared when behaviors were studied in this manner" (Smith, 2001, [Online]), but he did not clarify which behaviors were studied.

When making a quotation of more than 40 words, use a free-standing "block quotation" on a new line; indent five to seven spaces and omit quotation marks.

Smith (2001) found the following:

The "placebo effect," which had been verified in previous studies, disappeared when behaviors were studied in this manner. Furthermore, the behaviors , were never exhibited[italics added], even when real [sic] drugs were administered. Earlier studies were clearly premature in attributing the results to a placebo effect (p. 276).

REFERENCE CITATIONS IN TEXT

Whenever using your own words to refer indirectly to another author's work ( paraphrasing), you must identify the original source. The "author-date method" of citation is used for this purpose, but without quotations marks. A complete reference must appear in the reference list at the end of your paper.

Following are some examples :

One Work by a Single Author

The surname of the author and the year of publication are inserted in the text at the appropriate point. If this information appears as part of the narrative, it need not be cited again:

Smith (2001) compared reaction times...

Within a paragraph, you need not include the year in subsequent references to a study as long as the study cannot be confused with other studies in the article:

Smith (2001) compared reaction times....Smith also found...

One Work by Two or More Authors

Two Authors

When a work has two authors, cite both names every time the reference occurs in the text:

-as James and Ryerson (2002) demonstrated...

-as has been shown (James and Ryerson, 2002).

Two to Six Authors

When a work has more than two and fewer than six authors, cite all authors the first time; in subsequent citations include only the surname of the first author followed by "et al." and the year:

Williams, Jones, Smith, Bradner, and Torrington (2004) found...

Williams et al. (2004) found... (subsequent citations)

Corporate Author

When the reference is to a work by a corporate author, use the name of the organization as the author.

Retired officers retain access to all of the university’s education and recreational facilities (Columbia University, 2002). They have been...

Unknown or Unspecified Author

If the author is unknown or unspecified, use the first few words of the reference list entry (usually the title).

Misbehaviors were found to reduce to three factors; incompetence, offensiveness, and indolence (The Study Finds, 2003). In the....